Wednesday, June 10, 2020

The Adkar Change Management Model Business Essay - Free Essay Example

Industrial Laboratory Problems with Production, Efficiency, and Flow. Continuous quality improvement is the focus of a quality based leader in an industrial QC laboratory, but laboratory leaders that are deficient in quality assurance knowledge can struggle with analyzing production, efficiency, or workflow problems. Major issues industrial QC laboratory leaders encounter are uneven workloads, poor work scheduling, lack of cross training, overstrained work activities, and inefficient wasteful processes (Reynolds, 2009). To combat these issues of poor laboratory efficiency and quality, assertive laboratory leaders may try to improve conditions by implementing an efficiency system, such as lean 5S. Problem recognition, by industrial QC laboratory leaders, is a valuable first step to continuous quality improvement. Insufficient understanding of the complexity involved in inefficient culture, the lean 5S system purpose, and change management leads to failure for most industri al laboratory leaders in sustaining a meaningful and successful lean 5S culture change. 5S Description as a Foundation to Lean, and 5S Failure 5S is a five step system for altering the environment of an industrial lab that is inefficient, wasteful, and displaying poor quality into a lab that is organized, experiences smooth work flow of product and personnel, and is visually enhanced; as a result, bringing wasteful issues to the forefront for continuous improvement. The 5S system is a quality improvement development originating in Japan; unequivocally, the five Ss are seiri, seiton, seiso, seiketsu, and shitsuke (Hirano,1992); however, in the English version the five Ss have been given the names sort, set in order, shine, standardize, and sustain (5S Supply, 2011). Each step of the 5S system works together. 5S starts with sort, where an industrial laboratory visually organizes and labels its entire inventory in groups of importance and categorical description; for instan ce, marking all laboratory equipment as essential, possible essential, and non-essential (Nilipour Jamshidian, 2005). All non-essential items are marked with a red tag and then taken to a holding area for non-value added item disposal. Sort is the step of removing waste that reduces clutter and improves organization for moving on to the next step in the 5S system, set in order. Set in order is the orderliness step where all value-added inventory items are organized and properly labeled for easy use and access. Access to items is determined by how often they are needed or used; for example, frequently used laboratory equipment and tools should be kept close to the area of need, and less frequently used items can be stored away in a properly labeled area for easy discovery (Froehling, 2009). Organizational tools are implemented such as labeling cabinets and shelves, color coding equipment and tools, and outlining and labeling work areas. Organizing, labeling, and placing laboratory t ools and equipment in their designated locations allow for ease of the next 5S step of shine. Shine involves cleaning the laboratory, removing dirt and grime, and making the lab shine. Cleanliness and orderliness provides an industrial lab environment for easily identifying and eliminating waste and non-value added items. To make the 5S system part of everyday lab activities, the first three steps of 5S must become part of laboratory standard operating procedure; for this reason, the work needs to be standardized through work tasks (Froehling, 2009). Each employee of the lab must do his or her part in continually organizing, eliminating waste, and cleaning; subsequently, these tasks are done by implementing the fourth step of standardize. Once the 5S system is standardized, it must be reinforced through the sustain step which involves such activities as auditing, appraisal, and positive feedback; consequently, sustain is the step most practitioners neglect and do not fully implem ent, therefore leading to failure of this step. According to Hogg (2005), the sustain step, of the 5S system, is where the majority of 5S failure occurs. There are those that consider the 5S system as basic housekeeping, and if a practitioner were to look at the first three steps of 5S, it would be (Eaton, 2000). What the laboratory leaders fail to recognize is the true application of all five steps of 5S as the foundation to a lean laboratory and as a permanent culture change to a lab that has operated in the past as inefficient and wasteful. For example, if an industrial laboratory has been working for 10 years as inefficient, then inefficiency would be customary and the standard engrained in that laboratory culture. Because of this history, it would take more than housekeeping to break down the cultural barriers existing in this laboratory work environment to improve efficiency and quality long term. If 5S is labeled as housekeeping by laboratory leadership or upper management , then the 5S quality initiative most certainly falters (Hogg, 2005). 5S as a Culture Change, and Change Management Failure It is important for industrial laboratory leaders to realize that 5S implementation is more than housekeeping. 5S is a change in the following three areas; work flow of product and personnel, functioning of the lab in terms of inventory and equipment, and standard operating procedures and daily activities. Understanding the changes that take place through the implementation of the laboratory 5S system is crucial knowledge for laboratory leadership. 5S is not a quality tool, but a lean quality system that requires change from all industrial laboratory personnel. According to Shil (2009), it is crucial for laboratory leadership and upper management to acknowledge lean 5S as a culture change to the organization, and not a simple task performed periodically. Now that the 5S system has been established successfully as a change in culture it is important for the 5S facilitator to understand the intricacies of implementing change, and sustaining the intended change as needed with lean 5S. The important issues needing to be addressed when implementing change are leadership support, employee resistance, and change reinforcement. Leadership support is very important to start the 5S implementation, so laboratory personnel must recognize that company management is serious about the changes being put forth, and feel confident in management to provide the resources and support that is needed to make the changes materialize and endure. Employee resistance can be a huge obstacle to the implementation of change; therefore, leadership cannot ignore resistance and must do all it can to change resistance to acceptance (Obrien, 2008). Engaging the employee is the first step to breaking down this barrier, and engagement is accomplished by effective communication and employee involvement. Communication is important for educating laboratory personnel on the reasons for the proposed change, and for their understanding of the root causes of laboratory inefficiencies that brought on the need for change. Effective communication brings a positive light to the employees perception of the change, gives them an understanding of the needed change, and starts the breakdown of resistance (Society for Human Resource Management, 2007). The next important aspect for leadership in employee engagement is to involve the laboratory personnel in the decision making and implementation planning of the 5S system. Involvement in the change gives the laboratory personnel a sense of ownership in the system, and continues to deplete the remaining resistance to change. According to Gallup Business Journal (2012), engaging employees builds passion within the workforce and that passion can turn employee resistance to employee innovation and promotion of change. Once a change has been implemented it is not necessarily secure; consequently, this uncertain ty is a third reason 5S practitioners fail to sustain the intended quality improvements that lean 5S is meant for. 5S is a dynamic system that needs to be managed and measured. Most failure of 5S occurs in the fifth step of sustain because laboratory leaders lose focus on the 5S system. Because standards are in place and the laboratory is clean and organized, leaders think the laboratory will continue to operate this way. This thought process is a big mistake and causes the 5S system to deteriorate and result in laboratory personnel losing initial enthusiasm for the lean quality initiative. According to Bevan (2011), the major factor in successful change is not putting together a plan or understanding the change, but implementing and sustaining the change, yet many change leaders assume initial change will stick, therefore neglecting to preserve the change. Failure of the 5S system is not only a waste of resources, money and time, but also a loss of opportunity. The 5S system is the foundation of a lean laboratory, and if 5S fails it can result in an increase in laboratory personnel change resistance for any future lean initiatives. Understanding the intent of 5S as a culture change and demonstrating a clear understanding of the complexities of change management practice is extremely beneficial for any 5S practitioner. Change Management Success, and the ADKAR Change Management Model 5S is not a laboratory housekeeping task or quality tool; on the contrary, 5S is a lean system that requires culture change in the industrial laboratory. In order for a successful implementation and sustainable 5S culture change in an industrial laboratory, a change management model can be extremely important and vital for planning, educating, implementing, and sustaining the quality initiative. A change management model provides the structure that is missing from the 5S steps for successful and sustainable change. Research shows that change, such as 5S, breaks down due to poor planning and leadership, employee resistance and human resource neglect, and insufficient reinforcement of the change in culture (Song, 2009). One such change management model that has proven success is the ADKAR change management model developed by Jeffrey Hiatt from the Prosci Learning Center. The ADKAR change management model consists of five elements that build off of each other, and focus on important areas of change; such as, evaluation, management leadership, employee engagement, training, and reinforcement (Hiatt, 2006). Although some industry professionals may prefer an alternative change management model, the ADKAR model was chosen for its simplicity, structure, and ability to implement change ranging from change in individuals to more complex company-wide change. ADKAR Elements The ADKAR change management model has five elements in its structure, and the five elements are: Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability, Reinforcement. Awareness Ele ment of the ADKAR Model The element of awareness consists of some very important aspects in providing a solid foundation to a change initiative like lean 5S. One aspect is the ability to evaluate the organizations openness to change, and provide information for evaluating each element of the ADKAR model. For instance, determining how aware the organization is on its need to change, if management supports the proposed changes, and if the change has been communicated to the employees. Evaluation is a good starting point in determining which element of the ADKAR model is the weakest in respect to the organization making the changes. Evaluation could answer important questions like: What is the desire level of the employees to making this change happen? How knowledgeable are employees on the new processes and systems intended from the change? Are resources and workforce available to enable the laboratory to implement the changes? Is there a process for reinforcing the cha nges, and is the laboratory able to sustain the new systems and processes long term? Evaluation using the ADKAR change management model provides 5S leadership with a planning resource for making a strong plan prior to beginning the 5S system implementation. Awareness also promotes the importance of having strong management support for the planned 5S changes; subsequently, sponsorship is important for giving laboratory employees the feeling of being supported by upper management, and confidence knowing that resources are being provided for the full 5S implementation. Awareness likewise covers the very important process of communicating to employees the reasoning for the 5S system, and engaging employees on their concerns and ideas, and using their experience to build strong support for the 5S system. According to the survey by the Society of Human Resource Management (2007), the two highest reported barriers to successful change are employee resistance to change, and insufficie nt communication of the planned change. Hiatt (2006) lists the four strategies of developing awareness of change as: Operative Communication, Top Management Support, Leadership Instruction, Appropriate Information Access. Desire Element of the ADKAR Model People are naturally hesitant to change, and strategically communicating the need for 5S and showing strong management support is designed to create the next element of the ADKAR model; specifically, desire for the 5S system in the laboratory. Desire is the breaking down of change resistance and the barriers to change inherent in the laboratory employees, and engaging them to the point of turning resistance to enthusiasm. According to Zigarmi and Hoekstra (2011), resistance to change is created when change is forced on employees instead of performed with employees; furthermore, not involving the employees being affected by the change taking place is the largest obstruction to successful change. Jeffrey Hiatt (2006 ) lists the maneuvers for creating desire in the ADKAR model as: Sponsor the change successfully in collaboration with employees, Provide managers the ability to perform as change leaders, Appraise risk and expect resistance, Involve employees in the process, Align enticement programs to the goals. After the first two elements of ADKAR are implemented, the laboratory personnel are aware of the efficiency problems in the laboratory department, and the need for continuous quality improvement. Through effective communication and employee involvement the desire to change is strong, and employees are on board with the next step of learning about the five steps and structure of the 5S system. Not addressing the first two steps of awareness and desire is the first problem 5S practitioners make; as a result, they do not set a strong foundation for implementing a system as culturally complicated as 5S. Laboratory leaders can misinterpret the 5S system as a simple housekeepi ng activity or quality tool and then struggle mightily, because laboratory employees cannot understand the need for the system, and do not feel the presence of management support; accordingly, employees then naturally build a resistance to the implementation of 5S into the laboratory. Knowledge Element of the ADKAR Model Knowledge is the third element of the ADKAR change management model. Knowledge is the training element of the change management structure and consists of training all laboratory employees on the history, structure, and processes used in the 5S system. The knowledge element of the ADKAR model stresses the importance of robust instruction of how to implement and use each 5S step, and making sure laboratory employees are unified in implementing and following the procedures to be developed. Jeffrey Hiatt (2006) describes the exercises for building knowledge in the ADKAR model as: Train and educate with effectiveness, Provide work tools, Coach employees in dividually, Develop training groups and settings. According to the research paper by Korkut, Cakicier, Erdinler, Ulay, and Dogan (2009), 5S training by organizational leadership to the personnel executing the 5S implementation is a decisive factor in the successful 5S operation. Eaton and Caprenter (2000), reiterate the importance of training and emphasize that all affected employees need to understand how 5S works, how it is implemented, and what the results should be. Ability Element of the ADKAR Model Ability is the fourth element of the ADKAR model, and emphasizes the importance of providing resources in time, manpower, and equipment for a full implementation of all 5S steps. If time, manpower, and equipment are not adequate for implementing changes, then the whole 5S system can be compromised and each step may not be completed as the system is designed. Jeffrey Hiatt (2006) lists the exercises for crafting ability in the ADKAR model as: Support the change through daily supervisor involvement, Provide expert advice in subject material, Appraise performance, Involve employees in training exercises. According to Bevan (2011), monetary, workforce, and technological resources must be available and applied to empower the change to be executed, or the change will be impaired. Minimalizing resources on change implementation such as 5S into an industrial laboratory can weaken the sustainability of the intended changes; in summary, laboratory personnel need the tools and time to get the job done. Reinforcement Element of the ADKAR Model Reinforcement is the last element of the ADKAR change management model. This element is extremely important if the 5S system is to be sustainable for the long term in an industrial laboratory. Knowing that 5S failures happen most often when 5S practitioners neglect the last step of the 5S system, sustain, then the ADKAR model can provide the proper planning and focus needed on building a sustainable 5S system in the industrial laboratory. Reinforcement accentuates the importance of measuring the affects of 5S changes through auditing the 5S system. According to Bevan (2011), tracking the changes by comparing results with the planned vision of the 5S system and reassessing goals to promote continual improvement are critical factors in successful and sustainable change. Hiatt (2006) also underscores the importance of employee recognition for following new 5S standard operating procedures, being a team player, and enthusiastically promoting the 5S culture changes. Another point of reinforcement is the continuation of management support, and keeping management involved with auditing and providing the needed positive feedback for employee recognition. Leaders of change must be aware of their role in successful change, and their responsibility in fostering the new system for continued growth and change in culture (Higgs Rowland, 2010). If the reinforcement of the industrial laborato ry 5S system is planned for and followed, as the ADKAR model can provide, then the probability of 5S sustainability failure will extremely diminish, and the 5S culture change can become the norm. Reinforcement, Continuous Improvement, and PDSA Cycle The ADKAR model stresses the importance of a strong reinforcement process for sustainability and continuous improvement of implemented changes. An important quality and continuous improvement tool that provides a strong reinforcement process for 5S sustainability is the use of the continuous improvement cycle of PDSA (plan, do, study, act). With the inclusion of the PDSA cycle in the reinforcement element of the ADKAR model, 5S system audits, metrics, appraisals, and laboratory personnel feedback and recognition would be planned, implemented, studied for effectiveness, and continually improved by enacting changes to improve culture change reinforcement and 5S sustainably. According to the PDSA workbook from the State of Victoria Department of Health (2010), the PDSA cycle is an excellent model for continuous system improvement; furthermore, the workbook breaks down each phase of the PDSA cycle as follows: Plan Phase: The planning of the 5S improvement that answers, the who, what, when, why, and how of the initiative. Do Phase: The execution of the scheduled deliverables from the planning phase. Study Phase: The review phase of comparing where the 5S system was and where it is now since the planned improvement initiatives have been executed. Measurables are taken to determine if changes were beneficial, or if more changes are needed to meet intended plans. Act Phase: The moving forward phase to realize the gains from the cycle, determine opportunities that have risen from this initiative, and decide if the improvement cycle needs to be repeated or are new strategies apparent for improvement. The ADKAR reinforcement element employs five campaigns for reinforcing change: Celebration and Reco gnition, Rewards, Feedback from Employees, Audits and Performance Measurement Systems, Accountability Systems (Hiatt, 2006). To employ these reinforcement campaigns and continually improve these tactics, PDSA can provide the continuous improvement model for devising, implementing, measuring, and improving the five tactics of reinforcement that the 5S system needs for long term sustainability. Continuous quality improvement is a voyage, and the PDSA cycle provides the structure needed to verify the sustainability of 5S through recurring assessment, and prevention of disparities within the 5S system from its intentions (Quality Insights of Pennsylvania, 2011). Each PDSA cycle performed in the reinforcement element of ADKAR provides a learning experience that can be used for continually strengthening the 5S system, and sufficiently reacting to laboratory environment changes and new quality issues (Srivannaboon, 2009).

Monday, May 25, 2020

Essay about Mass Media and Popular Culture - 1491 Words

Mass Media and Popular Culture: Effects on the Population Mass Media and Popular Culture Mass media and popular culture go hand in hand. This paper will discuss the impact of mass media on enculturation, examine the relationships among media, advertising and the formation of normative cultural values, and discuss the impact of the internet on popular culture and the way we communicate today. Real world examples of this impact will be provided to prove our point of view and the overall effect mass media has on popular culture. Enculturation is defined as â€Å"the process by which an individual learns the traditional content of a culture and assimilates its practices and values.† (Merriam-Webster, 2007) Mass media is part of our everyday†¦show more content†¦Types of drama in numerous cultures were probably the first mass media, going back into the Ancient World. The 1st book printed was the â€Å"Diamond Sutra†, printed in China in 868 AD .Johannes Gutenberg printed the first book on a printing press with movable type in 1453. Newspapers developed around from 1605, with the first example in English in 1620, but they took until the nineteenth century to reach a mass-audience directly. Mass Media has a significant impact on Enculturation. But to truly find out that impact we must what Enculturation means which is when culture teaches an individual by repetition the right and the wrongs and also values, so he or she can become an accepted member of society. For example how we talk and act around people. We all tend talk or act certain way which is determined by what we watch on television and even what topics we talk about. Which are topics that we see on the news that falls under the category of mass media. What is going on in the world we live in, we even tend to seek approval on what we drive and how we dress which we base on what we see on television commercials, TV. Shows and even the radio which is another type of Mass Media. Media relates to advertising in some way, for example how they advertise Tobacco on television. The ads we see or even read about how Tobacco is bad and how smoking can give u cancer. The media plays a role on how they advertise Tobacco giving a negative thing to do makeShow MoreRelatedMass Media and Popular Culture953 Words   |  4 PagesMass Media and Popular Culture March, 2009 Let us face the facts, mass media and popular culture need each other to coexist. Furthermore, in todays society the mass media serves the interest of popular culture. Moreover, it is the vehicle of free speech in a diverse, multicultural society. In addition, mass media refers to communication via radio, televisions, movie theaters, television, newspapers, magazines, and, etc; thereby, reaching out to the larger audience. On the contrary, popularRead MoreMass Media and Popular Culture1367 Words   |  6 PagesHow has mass media a created a relationship among popular culture, mass media and different forms of dissemination? Mass media is any form of communication used to reach a large group of people. There are different types of media; examples of media are magazines, movies, television, books, recording devices, radio and the internet. As time goes on, new and improved technology is developed in the mass media industry for communicating and entertainment purposes. As mass medi a continues to grow andRead MoreThe And Dissemination Of Cultural Values, Ideologies, And Hierarchies832 Words   |  4 Pagessemiotics, important issues to understand the full web of the â€Å"word-concept† culture, dominate much of the theory and practice. The most common debates are over naming eras and redefining terms like popular, culture, popular culture, etc. Despite the debate, the historiography maintains four important foci for the construction of cultural values: industrialization and the Progressive Era, the influence of industrialized media, the concept of shifting contexts, and a reference an attempt to identifyRead MoreEssay about Mass Media1507 Words   |  7 Pagesemergence of mass culture There has always been a definitive struggle to define culture as it is so complex and means something different to each individual. Culture affects all of us in different ways resulting in multiple definitions of culture. Culture had previously been seen as a way of improvement and growth, helping us to understand our place in society and guiding us towards a better understanding of ourselves. 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Several scholars have developed philosophies that help people understand how mass media fulfills its roles in the society. For example, Horkheimer and Adorno have constructed theories that explain the functions and impacts of mass media in the society across the globe (Mosco, 2008). The central theme in all mass communication models entails the meaning of media contentsRead MoreCulture and the Mass Media1400 Words   |  6 PagesImpact of Mass Media on Enculturation The mass media and culture go hand and hand in today s society. The American culture thrives on the Mass media and this has become American culture today. â€Å"Mass media is any medium used to transmit mass communication. Until recently mass media was clearly defined and was comprised of the eight mass media industries; books, newspapers, magazines, recordings, radio, movies, television and the Internet (Lane, 2007).† The mas media is no longer simple to defineRead MoreChilean Journalism Practices And How They Have Evolved And Respond Within The Culture1104 Words   |  5 Pagesto changes within the culture. Different platforms took different directions depending on whether they were national and supported by the government or private and supported independently. (Mellado 140) As the Chilean government allowed more â€Å"freedom of speech† with the country, more media platforms came about. (Mellado 140) â€Å"During this time, the more professional press was born, looking more like what we understand as a newspaper† in addition to news, all forms of media took off in the earlyRead MoreDefining Popular American Culture1039 Words   |  5 PagesDefining Popular American Culture The study of culture is very important to our society, as we have been studying our past and identities for as long as we can recall. Studying our cultures allows us to understand each other as a people, so we can comprehend what we have done, and possibly, what we may do. As we study American popular culture, we see something that began as almost nothing, to a group of patterns that has captured the minds of not only the American people themselves, but the wholeRead MoreThe Sociological Aspects Of The Media And Popular Culture Essay1622 Words   |  7 PagesThe media influences how people experience social life. Media such as newspaper, television and film, are important sources of information, education and entertainment. It can be used to learn more about the world and the people in it. In this regard it can be said that the media represent, interpret and endorse aspects of social experience (O’Shaughnessy and Stadler, 2005). The media are also implicated in social regulat ion, or in other terms, the government of society. The media are implicated

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Environmental Analysis - 1528 Words

External and Internal Environmental Analysis Aeropostale is a mall-based, specialty retailer of casual apparel and accessories, principally targeting 14 to 17 year-old young men and women through its Aeropostale stores and 7 to 12 year-old children through P.S. from Aeropostale stores (Aeropostale, 2012, para. 2). Aeropostale opened its doors in 1987, in the New York area. The specialty retailer had more than 110 stores in 1999 and has grown to more than 900 stores in the US, Puerto Rico, and Canada. Aeropostale’s name dates back to the 1920s. The stores are named after Compagnie Generale Aeropostale, an airmail company, was the first to fly between France, South Africa, and South America. External and Internal Environmental Analysis A†¦show more content†¦The principle competitive factors of the retail clothing industry are design, brand image, consumer preference, price, quality, marketing, and customer service. 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Instead, they must adapt to these macro-environmental factors, which include : †¢ Political †¢ Economical †¢ Social †¢ Technological †¢ Environmental †¢ Legal The way the companies adapt to these factors determines both their ability to differentiate themselvesRead MoreCompany Profile, Environmental And Swot Analysis And Key Managerial Issues1647 Words   |  7 PagesCHAPTER THREE COMPANY PROFILE, ENVIRONMENTAL AND SWOT ANALYSIS AND KEY MANAGERIAL ISSUES This study seeks to develop a five year human resource strategic plan for the National Commission for Civic Education (NCCE). Specific objectives of the research were (a) to identify the current gaps in human resource management at NCCE; (b) to note the effect of the human resource gaps on organizational performance; (c) to ascertain what steps NCCE has put in place to address the human resource gaps; (d) toRead MoreWater Quality Analysis Of The Potable And Environmental Water853 Words   |  4 PagesIn this research project I conducted the water quality analysis of both the potable and environmental water at various village sites, and in the New River Lagoon in Belize. The data collected in this project contributed to the data collected over the past decade by previous McMaster fellows and scholars. Moreover, we conveyed the results from this study to the community partners in the villages San Carlos, Rancho Dolores, and with the Programme for Belize—the managing entity of R io Bravo ConservationRead MoreEnvironmental Analysis2952 Words   |  12 Pagesà ¸ Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸ £Ã  ¸ §Ã  ¸ ´Ã  ¹â‚¬Ã  ¸â€žÃ  ¸ £Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸ °Ã  ¸ «Ã  ¹Å' à ¸ ªÃ  ¸  Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸Å¾Ã  ¹ Ã  ¸ §Ã  ¸â€Ã  ¸ ¥Ã  ¹â€°Ã  ¸ ­Ã  ¸ ¡ (Environmental Analysis) à ¹â€šÃ  ¸â€Ã  ¸ ¢ à ¸ ­.à ¸â„¢Ã  ¸ ´Ã  ¸ £Ã  ¸ ¡Ã  ¸ ¥ à ¸Å¾Ã  ¸ £Ã  ¸ ¡Ã  ¸â„¢Ã  ¸ ´Ã  ¸ ¥ à ¸ ªÃ  ¸  Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸Å¾Ã  ¹ Ã  ¸ §Ã  ¸â€Ã  ¸ ¥Ã  ¹â€°Ã  ¸ ­Ã  ¸ ¡Ã  ¸â€šÃ  ¸ ­Ã  ¸â€¡Ã  ¸ ­Ã  ¸â€¡Ã  ¸â€žÃ  ¹Å'à ¸ Ã  ¸ £Ã  ¸â€ºÃ  ¸ £Ã  ¸ °Ã  ¸ Ã  ¸ ­Ã  ¸Å¡Ã  ¸â€Ã  ¹â€°Ã  ¸ §Ã  ¸ ¢ †¢ à ¸ ªÃ  ¸  Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸Å¾Ã  ¹ Ã  ¸ §Ã  ¸â€Ã  ¸ ¥Ã  ¹â€°Ã  ¸ ­Ã  ¸ ¡Ã  ¸  Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸ ¢Ã  ¸â„¢Ã  ¸ ­Ã  ¸  (External environment) à ¸â€¢Ã  ¹â€°Ã  ¸ ­Ã  ¸â€¡Ã  ¸ §Ã  ¸ ´Ã  ¹â‚¬Ã  ¸â€žÃ  ¸ £Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸ °Ã  ¸ «Ã  ¹Å'à ¸â€Ã  ¸â€¡Ã  ¸â„¢Ã  ¸ µÃ  ¹â€° à ¸ ± General environment †¢ à ¹â‚¬Ã  ¸ ¨Ã  ¸ £Ã  ¸ ©Ã  ¸ Ã  ¸ Ã  ¸ ´Ã  ¸Ë† à ¸â€¢Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸ £Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸â€¡ EFAS †¢ à ¸ ªÃ  ¸ ±Ã  ¸â€¡Ã  ¸â€žÃ  ¸ ¡ à ¸ §Ã  ¸ ±Ã  ¸â€™Ã  ¸â„¢Ã  ¸ËœÃ  ¸ £Ã  ¸ £Ã  ¸ ¡ †¢ à ¸ Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸ £Ã  ¹â‚¬Ã  ¸ ¡Ã  ¸ ·Ã  ¸ ­Ã  ¸â€¡ à ¸ Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸ £Ã  ¸â€ºÃ  ¸ Ã  ¸â€žÃ  ¸ £Ã  ¸ ­Ã  ¸â€¡ à ¸ Ã  ¸Å½Ã  ¸ «Ã  ¸ ¡Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸ ¢ à ¸â€"à ¸ £Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸Å¡Ã  ¹â€šÃ  ¸ ­Ã  ¸ Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸ ª à ¹ Ã  ¸ ¥Ã  ¸ ° †¢ à ¹â‚¬Ã  ¸â€"à ¸â€žÃ  ¹â€šÃ  ¸â„¢Ã  ¹â€šÃ  ¸ ¥Ã  ¸ ¢Ã  ¸ µ à ¸ ­Ã  ¸ ¸Ã  ¸â€ºÃ  ¸ ªÃ  ¸ £Ã  ¸ £Ã  ¸â€žÃ  ¸â€šÃ  ¸ ­Ã  ¸â€¡Ã  ¸ ­Ã  ¸â€¡Ã  ¸â€žÃ  ¹Å'à ¸ Ã  ¸ £ Competitive environment †¢ Five Force Model o à ¸ Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸ £Ã  ¹â‚¬Ã  ¸â€šÃ  ¹â€°Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸ ¡Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸â€šÃ  ¸ ­Ã  ¸â€¡Ã  ¸â€žÃ  ¸ ¹Ã  ¹Ë†Ã  ¹ Ã  ¸â€šÃ  ¹Ë†Ã  ¸â€¡Ã  ¸â€šÃ  ¸ ±Ã  ¸ ¢Ã  ¸ £Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸ ¢Ã  ¹Æ'à ¸ «Ã  ¸ ¡Ã  ¹Ë† o à ¸â€žÃ  ¸ ¹Ã  ¹Ë†Ã  ¹ Ã  ¸â€šÃ  ¹Ë†Ã  ¸â€¡Ã  ¸â€šÃ  ¸ ±Ã  ¸â„¢ à ¸â€¢Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸ £Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸â€¡ ICFAS o à ¸ ¥Ã  ¸ ¹Ã  ¸ Ã  ¸â€žÃ  ¹â€°Ã  ¸ ² o à ¸Å"à ¸ ¹Ã  ¸â€šÃ  ¸ ²Ã  ¸ ¢Ã  ¸ §Ã  ¸ ±Ã  ¸â€¢Ã  ¸â€"à ¸ ¸Ã  ¸â€Ã  ¸ ´Ã  ¸Å¡ à ¹â€° o à ¸ ªÃ  ¸ ´ à ¸â„¢Ã  ¸â€žÃ  ¹â€°Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸â€"à ¸â€Ã  ¹ Ã  ¸â€"à ¸â„¢ †¢ à ¸ ªÃ  ¸  Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸Å¾ à ¹ Ã  ¸ §Ã  ¸â€Ã  ¸ ¥Ã  ¹â€°Ã  ¸ ­Ã  ¸ ¡Ã  ¸  Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸ ¢Ã  ¹Æ'à ¸â„¢(Internal environment) à ¸ ¡Ã  ¸ µÃ  ¹â‚¬Ã  ¸â€žÃ  ¸ £Ã  ¸ ·Ã  ¹Ë† à ¸ ­Ã  ¸â€¡Ã  ¸ ¡Ã  ¸ ·Ã  ¸ ­Ã  ¸ «Ã  ¸ ¥Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸ ¢Ã  ¸â€¢Ã  ¸ ±Ã  ¸ §Ã  ¹Æ'à ¸â„¢Ã  ¸ Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸ £Ã  ¸ §Ã  ¸ ´Ã  ¹â‚¬Ã  ¸â€žÃ  ¸ £Ã  ¸ ²Ã  ¸ °Ã  ¸ «Ã  ¹Å'Read MoreEnvironmental Analysis1326 Words   |  6 Pagesthe landfill gas problem. However L.G.I. Pty Ltd also has several threats potentially impacting its operations, for example from large energy generators, large waste companies and opposition to landfill gas. With the continuing pace of global environmental awareness and a general growing consensus about the potential damage of greenhouse gases, the Australian Government may introduction legislation and associated taxation such as the use of carbon credits that are designed punish landfill owners

Thursday, May 14, 2020

How to Put Together a Poetry Manuscript for Publication

Putting together a poetry manuscript to submit to contests or publishers is not a walk in the park. Expect it to take an hour or two a day over the span of a week, month, or even a year, depending on how much work you have, how polished the pieces are, and how much time you can afford to spend on the project.   Despite that, creating a poetry manuscript for publication is an important next step in a writers career. Heres a step-by-step guide on how to make this goal a reality. Step 1: Choose Your Poems Begin by typing (or printing from your computer files) all the poems you want to consider putting into your book, one per page (unless of course, the poem is longer than a single page). This is a chance to make any small revisions you want to make to individual poems so that you can concentrate on the shape of the book as a whole. Step 2: Plan the Book Size To get started, decide how big of a book you want to create—20 to 30 pages for a typical chapbook, 50 or more for a full-length collection (more on exact page amounts later). You may well change your mind about this when you are actually selecting and ordering the poems, but this will give you a starting point. Step 3: Organize the Poems With the length of your book in mind, sift through all the pages you have typed or printed up, and put the poems into piles that you feel belong together in some way—a series of poems on related themes, a group of poems written using a particular form, or a chronological sequence of poems written in the voice of a single character. Step 4: Take a Step Back Let your piles sit at least overnight without thinking about them. Then pick up each pile and read through the poems, trying to see them as a reader and not as their author. If you know your poems well and find your eyes skipping ahead, read them out loud to yourself to make sure you take the time to listen to them. Step 5: Be Selective When you’ve read through a stack of poems, pull out any poems that no longer seem to fit in that particular pile or seem redundant, and put the poems you want to keep together in the order you want your readers to experience them. You may find yourself doing lots of reshuffling over time, moving poems from one stack into another, melding whole groups of poems together by combining stacks, or discovering new groupings that need to be separate and on their own. Don’t worry about it. You will likely come across new ideas for books or chapbooks and also change your mind a number of times before the poems settle into the shape of a finished book manuscript. Step 6: Take a Breather After you’ve pared down and reordered each pile of poems, let them sit again at least overnight. You can use this time to mull over your reading, listening for the poems that stand out in each stack and how they sound together. Pay attention to other poems that may have popped into your mind when you were reading a certain stack to see if you should add them or replace similar poems. Step 7: Reevaluate Book Length Think again about the length of the book you want to create. You may decide that one stack of related poems would make a good short chapbook. You may have a really large pile of poems that will all go together into a long collection. Or you may want to combine several of your piles to create sections within a full-length book. Step 8: Create an Actual Book Next, try actually making the manuscript into a book that you can live with and leaf through. Staple or tape your pages together put them into a three-ring notebook, or use your computer to print them out in book format. If you’re preparing an email or online submission, you may still want to print up the poems you’re considering—shuffling paper pages is easier than editing a computer file. If you have several long pieces, you may wish to lay everything out in a word processing document with the correct margins for the completed book size, to see how more exactly how many pages the collection will consume. For a typical 6-by-9-inch printed book, youll want the final page count to be divisible by four (include room for a title page, dedication page, table of contents, copyright page, and acknowledgments page in your count as well). For ebooks, the page count can be any number. If you want your document to look like a finished book when printed out, use your software to make mirror image pages when setting up your page size so that the left and right pages will face each other as they would when professionally bound, and add page numbers in a footer or header. That said, don’t think too much about typography or design at this point. You want simply to put the poems together so that you can read through the book and see how they interact in that order. Step 9: Choose a Title After you’ve decided on the length and general shape of your manuscript, choose a title for your collection. A title may have suggested itself during your sifting and ordering of the poems, or you may want to read through them again to find one—perhaps the title of a central poem, a phrase taken from one of the poems, or something completely different. Step 10: Proofread Carefully proofread your entire manuscript from beginning to end after you’ve put it in order. If you’ve spent a lot of time with the book, you may be tempted to give it only a cursory read-through. In this case, you need to set it aside for a few days or weeks so that when you come back to it you can pay close attention to each poem, each title, each line break, and each punctuation mark. You will likely find yourself making additional revisions to the poems at this point—don’t hold back, as this final reading may be your last chance to make changes before you send the book out into the world. Proofreading your own work is difficult—ask a friend, or two, to proofread the manuscript for you, and go through all their notes carefully. Fresh eyes will likely spot some errors that slid right by you but do not feel that you must accept every editorial change they may suggest. When in doubt about punctuation or line breaks, read the poem aloud. Step 11: Research Venues for Submission Next, it’s time to seek appropriate venues for submission. Use a list of poetry publishers or links to poetry contests to identify places you want to submit your manuscript. It’s important to read the poetry books they’ve published or the previous winners of their competitions in order to decide if you want them to publish your work. Targeting your submissions to publishers of like works can also save you time and money on submissions that would have been rejected for not being appropriate to their current catalog. Publishing is a business, and if a manuscript wouldnt fit in with others in the companys catalog, its marketing department wouldnt know what to do with it, regardless of its quality. Weed those publishers out before sending the manuscript anywhere. Keep notes on why a publisher is a good fit, to mention in your submission cover letter. Step 12: Apply! After you have selected a publisher or a contest, reread its guidelines and follow them exactly. Print a fresh copy of your manuscript in the format requested, use the submission form if there is one, and enclose the applicable reading fee. Try to let go of your manuscript after you’ve mailed it off—it may take a long time for you to get a response, and obsessing over one manuscript submission will only set you up for disappointment. It never hurts, however, to keep thinking about the order and title of your book and to submit it to other contests and publishers in the meantime (so long as the companies you’ve sent it to accept simultaneous submissions).

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Conflicting Value Systems in Everyman, Dr Faustus and Hamlet

Conflicting Value Systems in Everyman, Dr Faustus and Hamlet Conflicting value systems are always around, especially where death is involved. So in the tragedies of Everyman, Doctor Faustus and Hamlet there are many conflicts to face. These include personal moral conflicts with individual characters of the plays and also opposing values between the different characters in the play. Conflicting value systems may even stretch to how the audience interprets the play and the beliefs and culture at the time. In Everyman, we can see that the character Everyman faces a moral dilemma as God summons Everyman by offering Death to take him as his own. This creates to conflicting value systems. One is whether Everyman†¦show more content†¦There are inner moral dilemmas for all of the characters involved, as each of them have to fight with their conscience in order to make the right decisions. We can also find conflicting values in the religion of the play. Everyman is a Christian play in which God is seen as manipulative and vengeful, though heaven is seen as a good place. Now shalt thou into the heavenly sphere, Unto which all ye shall come That liveth well before the day of doom. (l.899-901) This alone shows a conflicting value within the play. Also, people of other religions would like to see God as a different figure and they may not believe in Heaven and a Hell. A Catholic would be able to do many bad deeds, yet would still be allowed to enter the Kingdom of Heaven if he had repented of his sins, and so because of this the audience could see the whole play as having conflicting value systems. In fact the whole audience could be in conflict. The play shows two different value systems within the moral argument. Everyman doesnt always make the right choices, after facing conflicting dilemmas with his mind. Towards the end of the play he feels weak and is ready to give up, he even talks about sinning. Alas I am so faint I may not stand; My limbs under me doth fold. Friends let us not turn again to this land, Not for all the worlds gold; For into this cave I must creep And turn to earth, and there to sleep. (l.788-793) The play also shows the

Existentialism By Frank Kafk Isolation And Desperation

Existentialism can be defined in a multitude of forms. Frank Kafka was a prominent, influential German-language writer of novels and short stories; one of which includes The Metamorphosis. His distinguishing philosophy of existentialism consists of two main concepts: isolation and desperation. The notion of alienation is a fundamental theme that is condensed throughout the short story. Gregor Samsa, main character and protagonist of The Metamorphosis, goes through a complete physical transfiguration that establishes the principle framework of the novel. In addition to Gregor’s metamorphosis, Kafka’s existentialism is enforced to Gregor’s death, family figures, job conditions, and the weather conditions. Kafka’s ideology suggests that one knows that death is inevitable; one must cease to exist. Gregor’s physical transformation into an insect alienated him from himself, his own species, and his own families. â€Å"When Gregor Samsa woke up one mornin g from unsettling dreams, he found himself changed in his bed into a monstrous vermin† (Kafka, Pg 4). Not once did Gregor question or panic about his physical change. Despite his indifference state of mind about his appearance, he emerges to be more distressed in terms of not attending work on time rather than his impulsive alteration. Gregor has failed to develop a sense of individuality and lack of humanity. â€Å"By the appellation ‘vermin,’ linguistic usage designates the lowest form of human self-contempt. Seeing himself as vermin,

Hemingway, In The Old Man And The Sea , Examines The Struggles Of Man Essay Example For Students

Hemingway, In The Old Man And The Sea , Examines The Struggles Of Man Essay andnature through the eyes of the protagonist, Santiago. Santiago senses his place in nature. Although he respects and loves her, he is constantly battling her. The old man, formerlycalled Santiago, is a wise, simple, enduring, and understanding person. The old manknows he must fish to live, but it saddens him that he must kill them sometimes because oftheir magnificence. An example being the Marlin in this story, he considers him a brother,but yet he has to kill him. He compares the Marlin to another male marlin he has encountered (pg.69). Themarlin he recalls had let his mate feed first. Then Santiago caught the female marlin andshe panicked but while she swam around the male stayed right with her. Even after shewas brought up he swam by the boat until at last he jumped up to see his mate one lasttime and dove into the depths of the ocean. The old man and the boy, who parallels theold man in the conflict, felt bad. They promptly begged her pardon and butchered her. During the story he also remembers arm wrestling with a Negro from Ceinfuegos(pg. 69). He recalls the bets that were placed and how the Negro had been so sure hewould win. Santiago thinks how he held the Negro for one whole night and one wholeday. The referees took four hour shifts and on Monday he finally took the Negro down. At that point the old man decided he could do anything he wanted to if he put his mindand body to it. He was referred to as the champion for a while after that. The final struggle starts with a large circle and slowly turned into a short line. Short enough so the man could see the Marlin (pg. 86). Santiago stares on in disbelief, henever thought it would be this big. Sure he had seen it before, but he had no idea that itwould be two to three times as big as the skiff. As the Marlins tail starts to hit the line,the old man knew the Marlin was starting to feel the pain. Santiago gives him some lineeach time he hit it for the pain could drive the Marlin mad, which the old man did notwant. After a long struggle (close to 6 hours), the old man finally had the Marlin. He didregret killing him but knew he had complete his task. It is apparent the old man has gained much wisdom through past experiences. Santiago also has a lot of common sense, or simplicity, as you can see by how he decidedthat there was nothing he could not do after he beat the Negro in arm wrestling. The oldman also shows endurance by staying with the Marlin for two and a half days. He is alsovery understanding by the way he feels sorry for having to kill the Marlin that was hisbrother.