Sunday, November 17, 2019
The Kite Runner and its theme on Psychological Healing and Redemption Essay Introduction It has been much known to many that wars and social differences among people in a certain society bring so many problems to many people in the world. Certainly, one may agree that because of the undoubted situation of the people who are directly affected by wars, there come to be several psychological issues that must be dealt with by people as individuals. Regarding wars, an article entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Why is there war?Ã¢â¬ comments this way: Ã¢â¬Å"Nationalism, prejudices, injustices and communication difficulties have been at the root of other conflicts. In all too many cases, armies have carried out the orders of leaders, such as Hitler, Napoleon and Alexander the Great, who have shown an excessive desire for personal glory and honor.Ã¢â¬ (Awake! 2000, 32) These comments notably support the idea that man, in many ways are the very elements that contribute to the worsening situation of the society regarding social inequality resulting to conflicts and worse, wars. In reaction to these social problems of inequality and conflicts, author Khaled Hosseini, an Afghan American novelist has come up with a fictionary story that shows the elemental sources as well as effects of social inequalities to people as individuals. The plot of the story was based upon two friends in Afghanistan who were merely separated by the social-class that they both belong to. One being the slave and one being the master, these two friends who turn out to be brothers as the story progresses, depict the differences of the people living in the society today. What are the themes that the story portrays and how do these themes reflect the ability and the ways by which an individual tries to regain himself from an emotional and psychological downfall? These and many more shall be discussed in the paragraphs that follow. An Overview of the Story The whole theme of the story of Ã¢â¬Å"The Kite RunnerÃ¢â¬ revolved around the lives of two young children who were from different classes of the society. Social prejudice of the economic status of people has been the main reason why the problem of diversity in Afghanistan has risen as portrayed in the story. This factor indeed contributed so much to the storyÃ¢â¬â¢s complication, which resulted to the guilt driven emotions of the main character Amir, when he was not able to come to the rescue of his friend Hassan. In this story, a clear display of the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s major problem on prejudice and equality has been shown. Concentrating on the more personally based assessment of the situation as portrayed by Amir, the social problems depicted in the story makes it easier to understand why people take lesser courage in making a change in the present social situation, be guilty later on and then set goals in making a change in a less complex and fearful way. Yes, in a concise display of events, the author tried to help the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s picture out the most important events of the situation that would likely connect the story with the intense effect of social diversity to individuals in the society. The consequences are shown to be much dreadful enough to keep a person from moving on with his own life, because of the fact that the lack of courage that drives a person to ignore the things that are supposed to be done by him in the first place. Certainly, an inner healing is necessary for certain situations such as this. It is normal for a person to feel down from not being able to complete or live up to a certain self-expectation. However, inner healing is not that easy to find. As for the main character of the story, it could be noted that the healing of his conscience mainly came form the fact that he had to come back to Afghanistan to find his find with a plan of making it up to him in any way he could. Although he was not able to do the said task as he has expected things to come along, he was still able to help himself regain his clear conscience through helping the son of his friend Hassan to have a change of life under his care. An Analysis of the Story As it could be noted, the story was plotted to show the deeper individual effects of the social differences among men as well as the effects of war on relationships between people. The existence of such issues has made the characters reflect the actual situation of individuals in the society especially focusing on the Afghanistan society. (Howard, 2003, Internet) One more them of the story, which should be given attention, is the picture of reality portrayed by Amir. His lack of courage in doing things that they know should be done is a problem by many people today. Although they know that something within their power could change several situations in the society, their fear of several elements in the society keeps them from doing any courageous change. This was shown when Amir failed to save his friend Hassan from the hands of the bully, Assef. As a result, his conscience has not made him completely relieved from moving away from Afghanistan ever since. Instead, he was continuously haunted by the past and the things that he was supposed to do for his friend (Kirszner, 2001, 90). At the same picture, several people today find it difficult to forget the past especially the situations that involves them with the things that they were supposed to do and yet they did not have much of the courage that it takes for them to do it. As a way of relieving the pain brought about by the past, people tend to find ways in which they could still change what happened. As for the situation of Amir, he tried to return to Afghanistan to supposedly make it up with Hassan. As it could be noted from the overview of the story, although Amir was not able to make it up to his half brother Hassan, he was able to clear his conscience by taking care of the son of Hassan instead. In the same way, people today find a way to heal their aching hearts through returning back to what has happened in the past and later on try to change things for the people that they were supposed o help before. This way, their conscience is then cleared off from the shortcomings that they incurred against others before. From Getting Hurt to Getting Healed and Redeemed As mentioned earlier, people tend to get hurt from many things. Usually, their experiences of several different situations they have been involved with, brings them the discouragement that they ought to feel after not being able to do what they were supposed to. This then brings them several psychological disturbances that keep them from moving on freely with their lives. The fear of doing what they should have done before might have been governed by several factors in the society that kept them from being able to complete their supposed tasks before (Hill, 2000, Internet). Certainly, because of the said elements, doing what is right might not have been that easy. Aside from this, it is quite easier to understand that the situation is harder to deal with when it is happening at the actual time. The lack of time to think things over makes it harder for a person to realize what should be immediately done to solve some things (Coon, 2001, 54,55). This is naturally what happened to Amir upon seeing the bully beat his friend. Along with fear and panic, he was not able to come up with the possible solution that he was supposed to apply during the said situation. People tend to lack courage when they are faced with the actual crisis. However, after some time of thinking things over, they begin to realize that there could have been better results if they did have the courage to do their ethical responsibilities regarding the situation. What is meant by redemption and healing? Naturally, this means recovery from any possible scourge that has been experienced by one in the past. Being healed, means being able to cure what has been causing one the pain that is felt in an emotional state as for this matter (Coon, 20001, 56). Hence, healing does not only involve mere mind works. It has to involve actions that would help the individual free himself from the guilt that he is feeling from within his conscience. Basing from how the main character tried to resolve his personal issues regarding his past shortcomings against his friend, coming back to the origin of his guilt feelings has helped him realize the possibility for him to clear his conscience from the guilt that has mainly plagued his thoughts for a long time. As for the present situation of the society, to redeem themselves from the psychological and emotional disturbances brought about by the past, people opt to find ways by which they can still change things even though the change may not be done directly to the people they have once failed to help (Coon, 2001, 58). The changes that this certain courageous act by an individual that naturally results to betterment of many or even of a few would then help that individual to regain his clean conscience thus clearing him from all the guilt that has been keeping him from moving on with his life before. A Social Connection of the Story Several issues that divide it to several classes govern the society today. Aside from the race, economic status makes it harder for an individual to deal with the society in a fair way. Yes, today, the main reason why people tend to separate themselves from others is the existence of social prejudice. What is prejudice? According to the article entitled, Ã¢â¬Å"They found the solution to the problem of raceÃ¢â¬ : Ã¢â¬Å"Education is the key to ending present condition of prejudice. When this key is missing, prejudice often results. Prejudice is a prejudgment, a judgment arrived at before persons have really examined the evidence regarding the matter involved. Then, because of their prejudice, they are inclined to discriminate against others. (Awake! 1999, 14) Certainly, the social division makes it harder for people to deal with each other in a fair way. In the same way, the governments and the non-government organizations, which are supposed to give answers to the said social issues, have a hard time finding ways by which they would be able solve the disturbances. As a result, they have to deal with the guilt that they gain from not being able to give answers to the most important issues in the human society. To be able to clear their guilt, they tend to solve the issues after several years when the pressure on the issue is already lessened and the attention of the society towards the issue has already been shifted to other problems (Coon, 2001, 60). Prejudice however remains to be the main reason why people are having a hard time dealing with a divided society. Facing the Roots of the Problem Basing from actual accounts in the society, prejudice is a major problem that makes it harder for people to find peace and security in their own communities. As it has been portrayed in the story of the Ã¢â¬Å"Kite RunnerÃ¢â¬ , the divisive culture of people cannot be easily dealt with. As a result, more roots of social issues arise from the very said social illness. Ã It is a responsibility of everyone else in the society to face the challenge of acting against the effects of prejudice. By being completely free from the thoughts of being superior from others should help everyone realize that they have to stand for their fellowmen when they are faced with the oppression of prejudice like that of the situation between Hassan and Amir in the story. For this reason, it would be more possible for people to avoid the guilt of not being able to complete their responsibilities to their fellowmen. Conclusion The creation of the authored story of Ã¢â¬Å"The Kite RunnerÃ¢â¬ gives a clear vision of the actual social situation of the people at present. The division that exists in the society makes it harder for the authorities to do what is supposed to be taken as an action to address the social injustices. As a result, guilt has to be dealt with by the authorities who are supposed to face the challenge. Rather than finding ways to heal oneÃ¢â¬â¢s conscience from not being able to commit to the challenges of the society, one might as well find ways to face the issues even before they happen, in result, this process of facing the social issues would be easier to manage than to actually find ways to clear oneÃ¢â¬â¢s conscience from being guilty. Healing and redemption is an essential part of the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s recovery from the effects of social prejudice. Individuals who have been naturally involved in the deeper effects of the said social issues are the ones who are supposed to find ways by which they could be able to handle their inner distress brought about by social inequalities. Changing how the world views not everyone with differences in an unequal manner may be that easy to deal with, but a single personÃ¢â¬â¢s courage of taking the lead to make a change on how people deal with prejudice is a great step towards a fairer society that does not divide society based on several classes of differences. Work Cited Magazines and Journals Why is there war. (2000). Awake! Brooklyn New York. They found the solution to the problem of race. (1999). Awake! Brooklyn New York. Internet Sources: Hill, Amelia. The Observer. (Sunday September 7, 2003). An Afghan hounded by his past. http://books.guardian.co.uk/reviews/generalfiction/0,6121,1036891,00.html. (March 13, 2007). Howard, Edward. The Servant. (August 3, 2003). The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9504E0DF123FF930A3575BC0A9659C8B63. (March 13, 2007). Books: Coon, Dennis. (2001).Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to mind and behavior. Thompson Learning Incorporated. Kirszner, Laurie G. (2001) Litterature: reading, reacting and writing. Harcourt College Publishers.
Friday, November 15, 2019
True love, can be a fantasy come true or you worst nightmare in my perspective, for love is a strong word and its used to frequently, but in the three movies I have observed you find yourself truly believing in love and in my opinion, True love is out there, and if your lucky you will meet the right person, the man or woman of your dreams. The three movies I picked are Shakespearean plays, Romeo and Juliet, the modern movie made in 1996, Othello which is also a known classic, tragic love story, where two people truly loved each other and tired to make it work, but had many obstacles to overcome, with family and race. What is true love? Love means a warm liking or affection for a person, affectionate devotion. Does the way Romeo describe Juliet sound like love to you? In my opinion love does not occur at first sight, it is something that you need to work towards. This Shakespeare play is a classic made into a modern gang bang performance, with knifes not daggers, exceptionally ensemble cars, and different attitudes and clothing. The cast of Romeo and Juliet, in the recent movie made in 1996, The tale of Romeo & Juliet is about the happenings of two forbidden lovers. Their families The Montagues and The Capulets share an ancient grudge, and now it has broken to a new mutiny. The Capulets only daughter Juliet meets the Montagues only son Romeo at a costume ball held at the Capulet mansion. They experience love at first sight, each falling desperately in love as they see the other through an amazing fishtank. Their love is so strong that they are married the next day, keeping everything secret from their parents. Juliet's cousin Tybalt is angry at Romeo for being present at the Capulet ball, and he sets out to challenge Romeo to a duel. He meets up with Romeo just after Romeo and Juliet's marriage and in the effort to get Romeo to fight him(Romeo refuses to fight, Romeo's best friend Mercutio is killed. Romeo wreaks revenge and in a sudden fit of anger kills Tybalt. He's banished from Verona walls and before go ing to hideout in Mantua he spends the night with his love and wife, Juliet. The following morning Romeo travels to Mantua to wait for things to settle down before he returns to Verona.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Growing old is another phase of our lives that is often perceived negatively and with apprehension. American society values youth and vitality and strength which to the elderly have become diminished and with it the sense of self-esteem and importance (Berger, 2001). Everyone dreads becoming old, especially if it is equated with sickness, memory loss and helplessness. To ease the anxiety of becoming one of the elderly, it is important that one is aware of the possible changes that would happen as you age.Knowledge of the changes that you will experience as the natural course of ageing will help you better deal with it and probably actively take an active role in growing old gracefully. At present much has been discovered about the developmental challenges of the elderly but this was not the case in the early years of developmental psychology. Developmentally speaking, old age was not given the attention it deserved in the past. Psychologists were more concerned with the development o f human beings from birth to adulthood (Shaffer, 1999).It was assumed by many that old age is a period wherein the physical strength and will decrease, mental functioning will become slower and ultimately will affect oneÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological well-being. However, it was also evident that the ability at which an individual can age gracefully depends on the quality of his/her younger life. But for those who are past their prime and whose youth have been less than ideal, it is not too late to change how we perceive becoming old.As we age, it is normal for our body to change and lose its strength and vitality and healthy bodily functioning (Petersen, 1996). This is brought about by the daily wear and tear that our bodies have been subjected to and just like any other antique piece of furniture it becomes frail and needs extra care and attention. For females, menopause can signal old age and for some it is the most difficult stage in ones life. Males usually have to contend with lost vi gor and physical strength.Coupled with this is the onset of several illnesses and physical discomforts like arthritis, high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol levels, diabetes and the more common failing eyesight, hearing loss and diminished taste buds. Likewise, endurance and physical strength continue to decrease and chores like mowing the lawn, gardening, cleaning the house, going to the grocery and other strenuous activities have to be sacrificed simply because your body cannot take it anymore.This does not mean that you should altogether stop doing any physical activity, exercise is still important as it keeps your body functioning well, the key is moderation. The elderly also tend to have sensitive digestive systems and some diseases require special diets, thus the elderly need to monitor their food intake and dealing with food restrictions can be frustrating for some. Others experience bowel difficulties, problems with digestion and metabolism disorders. As you age, the wor st physical change you could face is the lost of control over your bladder and bowels.It is almost frightening to think of but this is a reality that many of us experience when we get to a certain age. How we deal with these changes depends on our resiliency and attitude. If we anticipate these changes, then we become more prepared for it and accepting it as a natural course of ageing will help us effectively adjust in this stage. With old age, oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mental ability also suffers, forgetfulness is common, attention span becomes shorter, concentration is limited and problem solving ability wanes (Berger, 2001).However, recent research shows that mental functioning is physiologically based on our brain cells and mental activities like reading, writing, solving puzzles and artwork can keep our brain cells healthy and then stave off the deterioration of our mental functioning. Because the elderly often feel tired after doing some activity they do not have the energy to pursue menta l activities like reading and crossword puzzles. Moreover, most of the elderly face the television set day in and day out which does not help our brain cells at all.Mental ability can also be enhanced with social interaction and discourse, which means that the elderly need someone that they can relate with on a regular basis so as to keep their brains from withering. Brain cells can also benefit from vitamins and minerals that would keep the brain healthy however, one should be cautious of taking supplements because it also inadvertently affects the kidney and liver. One of the most common illnesses of the elderly that affects mental functioning is AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease; it is both a painful and difficult condition that puts a strain in their family and their lives.There is no way of telling that one will not become afflicted with AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s but to make a conscious effort to keep our mental ability working will keep it from deteriorating. Old age can also significantly affect psychological well-being. In this culture being old is frowned upon and is not treated with the respect and deference that other cultures have for their elders (Petersen, 1996). Being old is synonymous with helplessness, dumbness and even craziness for some; the elderly is often emotionally abused or bullied by others through name calling and ignoring their opinions and ideas.For those who are better off economically can afford to pay someone to take care of them and then spend time by themselves or with a support group. But just the same, they have to deal with diminished self-esteem, self-worth, loneliness and the inability to have control over their lives. The quality of life of the elderly can be improved by adopting a positive attitude about being old, accepting that all people grow old and if one is old, then that means that one is still alive.The quality of relationships of the elderly could either suffer or become better as one ages, some people find it difficult to r elate to the elderly while strained relationships are often resolved when a persons ages due to the realization that family and relationships are more important. In the past, old age have been associated with wisdom as it is something that comes with age and this is what our young people should appreciate and what yourselves should claim to have. Erik Erikson (Murray, 1990) says old age is associated with the crisis of wisdom versus despair.That is, if one has lived a full life and then gains wisdom in old age, while those who have failed to accomplish something in their life suffer from despair or regretting not being able to do what they wanted to do in their lives. Being old is not such a bad thing, one gets special attention in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s family, one gets to indulge their grandchildren, one does not have to discipline children, one gets away with mistakes and blunders, one can laugh at oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self and finally, one can do the things that younger, more rational and self-co nscious adults would not dare to do like shimmy while waiting in line.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
United International Business Schools Executive MBA, Brussels Campus Ã¢â¬Å"International EconomicsÃ¢â¬ Japanese SMEs going global: Lessons from Ã¢â¬Å"German MittelstandÃ¢â¬ By Pascal Gudorf January 2013 Contents 1. Introduction 2. JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s SMEs and overseas business 2. 1 SMEs and their role in the export economy 2. 2 Challenges of starting overseas activities 3. Initiatives for the promotion of overseas business 3. 1 Public support system for globalizing SMEs 3. 2 Export promotion through trade fair participation 3. 3 Foreign direct investment and financial support 3. Human resources development for global activities 4. Conclusion References Figures 2 4 4 6 8 8 10 11 12 13 15 17 1 1. Introduction Japan and Germany share many similar economic characteristics. As the third and fourth largest economies in the world, both boast highly skilled labor forces and are leading manufacturers of industrial goods such as automobiles, machinery, chemicals, electronics and other high- tech products. But while Germany has been on a robust recovery track and relatively unaffected by the financial crisis, JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s economy has been suffering from deflation and sluggish domestic demand.Its growth prospects are further subdued because of its shrinking population. Exports have been the main driver of economic growth in recent years. In Germany, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are highly active in international trade and responsible for a large share of exports. GermanyÃ¢â¬Ës midsized companies, known as Ã¢â¬ËMittelstandÃ¢â¬â¢, are the backbone of its economy. As the Ã¢â¬Å"German economy is doing well in comparison with many other countries, this is causing people all around the world to take a particularly keen look atGermany, and especially at the Ã¢â¬ËGerman MittelstandÃ¢â¬â¢ and its longstanding record of high employment and productivity. Ã¢â¬ , notes the Federal Ministry of Economic and Technology (BMWI, 2012). Coined Ã¢â¬Å"hidden champ ionsÃ¢â¬ by Hermann Simon, the most successful and innovative of them are world-leaders in their field. Although many of them started from humble beginnings and are still family-owned today, they have globalized early on. According to SimonÃ¢â¬â¢s research more than 1,000 hidden champions exist in Germany, many more than in all other countries combined including Japan (Simon, 2012).He sees them as the main contributors to GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s international competitiveness. Some economists and policy-makers therefore recommend other countries to emulate them as a role model. The success of GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s midsized companies or Ã¢â¬Å"hidden championsÃ¢â¬ has not gone unnoticed. In its latest White Paper on International Economy and Trade, JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI, 2012, p. 503) refers to GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"excellent small and medium-sized companiesÃ¢â¬ which have pursued a two-pillar strategy of high specialization in their fields of e xpertise combined with global marketing.With sales of up to 4 billion euro, many hidden champions have outgrown the size of a traditional SME. But even among German SMEs with less than 250 employees according to the definition of the European Commission, almost 20% of all companies are engaging in direct exports. In contrast to their German peers, most Japanese SMEs today still remain focused on the domestic market. While their numbers have been growing in recent years, less than 3% of all SMEs with less than 300 employees are export-oriented. The contrast is even more pronounced in the case of 2 oreign direct investment. While in Germany 17% of all SMEs have invested abroad, the percentage among Japanese SMEs is as low as 0. 3% (METI, 2012, p. 503). The smaller their size, the lower the proportion of companies engaged in exports and foreign direct investment. Although small and medium-sized companies dominate JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s industrial structure, few of them are involved in internat ional trade. Exports have traditionally been carried out by general trading companies or by large multinational manufacturers, for which SMEs work as subcontractors in vertical supplier networks.But as domestic demand is shrinking, many Japanese SMEs need to look beyond their home turf for business opportunities in new markets. Encouraging SMEs to expand their overseas business therefore is seen as an important step towards revitalizing the Japanese economy. The Japanese government has set up schemes to promote overseas business expansion. In July 2012, it included SMEs as one of the four main pillars in its Ã¢â¬Å"New Growth StrategyÃ¢â¬ besides healthcare, environment and agriculture. Still, many SMEs seem to lag their German peers in overseas activities. What are the factors that keep Japanese SMEs from going abroad?How can government initiatives effectively address these challenges? And what are their results? Based on company surveys and statistical data of exports and forei gn direct investment, this paper will first look into the recent trend of global activities by small and medium-sized businesses in Japan. It will then compare initiatives for the export and investment promotion of SMEs in both Germany and Japan and try to assess their results. By referring to available data and company surveys, the paper will try to show a positive linkage between overseas activities and job creation at home.It will also argue that government initiatives succeed in supporting a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s first steps on a foreign market, but that they have to be accompanied by support activities by the parent company in order to secure long-term success. Finally, the paper will highlight fundamental differences in economic structure, management practices and the labor market between Germany and Japan, which need to be addressed in order to facilitate overseas business for Japanese SMEs. 3 2. JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s SMEs and overseas business 2. 1 SMEs and their role in the export econ omyOutside of Japan much of its postwar economic success has been credited to automotive and electronic giants such as Toyota, Nissan and Panasonic with their strong export machines and global manufacturing presence. SMEs have often been ignored despite the crucial role they play in the Japanese economy. Companies with less than 300 employees make up 99. 7% of all 4. 2 million companies. They employ 69% of the labor force and create 53% of value-added in the manufacturing sector. The reason for SMEs being so little known is that most of them are domestic companies with little or no international exposure.According to the 2012 White Paper on Small and Medium Enterprises, only 2. 7% of all SMEs in the manufacturing sector are Ã¢â¬Å"export-orientedÃ¢â¬ (SMEA, 2012). The majority of small businesses remain isolated from international markets and foreign competition. Japan therefore has been described as a Ã¢â¬Å"dual economyÃ¢â¬ consisting of relatively few large, highly advanced , multinational companies on the one hand and a huge number of traditional, domesticoriented, small businesses on the other. In his 1990 book The Competitive Advantage of Nations, Michael Porter already warned that unless Japan overcame this dualism, its future would be at stake.What he observed, was a lack of competition in sectors apart from machinery, automotive and electronics: Ã¢â¬Å"While domestic rivalry is intense in every industry in which Japan is internationally successful, however, it is all but absent in large sectors of the economyÃ¢â¬ (Katz, 1996). PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s warning statement seems to have fulfilled itself twenty years later, as Japan slides into its third decade of slow or no growth. Sectors such as construction, paper, food and agriculture are still characterized by a lack of international competition. Almost none of these industries have produced successful global players.Nevertheless, there is a rising tendency among small and medium-sized businesses to r each out for global markets. Although still small in number, SMEs with export activities have increased by two thirds from 3,568 to 5,937 between 2002 and 2009 (Figure 1). According to Bank of Japan figures, exports accounted for 4. 4% of SMEsÃ¢â¬â¢ sales in 2002, but this had risen to 7. 4% by 2008. Large enterprises saw their exports grow from 23. 7% of sales to 27. 8% over the same period. In sales volumes, SMEsÃ¢â¬â¢ exports doubled to 5 trillion yen (43 billion euro) while those for big companies grew a more modest 37% to 71. trillion yen (622 billion euro) (EIU, 2010, p. 14). 4 Foreign direct investment by SMEs is also on the rise: the number of small businesses in the manufacturing sector investing overseas increased from 2,013 to 2,869 between 2001 and 2009 surpassing that of large manufacturers by almost 20% (SMEA, 2012). In JETROÃ¢â¬â¢s annual survey among 2,800 companies engaged overseas, 71% of SMEs responded they planned to actively expand their overseas business, while only 47% intended to expand their domestic operations (JETRO, 2012a, p. ). Comparing with earlier surveys, the proportion of companies looking into business opportunities abroad is one fourth higher than in 2008 showing a steady increase year by year. This recent surge in international activities is due to a number of factors: a shrinking domestic market, the relocation of clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ manufacturing facilities overseas, the opening up of traditional supplier networks to foreign competition, cheap labor and new business opportunities in emerging markets such as China and Southeast Asia.It is often said that overseas investment will lead to a shift in production, a Ã¢â¬Å"hollowing-outÃ¢â¬ of the domestic industrial base, and job redundancies at home. Individual company data, however, suggest that the opposite is the case. According to figure 2, parent companies have grown after the beginning of overseas investment (JSBRI, 2012, p. 95). Comparing SMEs with foreign direct investment with those that have not been active in FDI at all, one can clearly show a positive correlation of overseas expansion and job creation at home.SMEs observe other financial and operational benefits of investment in overseas production bases as well, such as an increase in profits, a reduction in cost and a speedier response to requests in their host market (JSBRI, 2012, p. 94). When asked about their regional focus of expansion in the next three years, Japanese companies put China on top of the list in every category from sales operations to production to R&D. Among the firms operating in China, half of them have located their bases in Shanghai.Thailand, Indonesia and India also rank high and are considered as more attractive sales destinations than the USA and other developed markets such as Western Europe (JETRO, 2012a). Regarding industries, production machinery, chemicals, electrical machinery and fabricated metal account for 43% of all exporting companies in the manuf acturing sector. Looking in more detail at different industries, one can observe significant differences in export orientation. While 15% of all chemical manufacturers and 7% of electronics parts and device manufacturers are involved in exports, only 1. % of all textile manufacturers and just 0. 7% of food processing companies export their products (JSBRI, 2012, p. 250). This drastic gap highlights the dualism of globally competitive and non-productive, domestic industries. 5 For small and medium-sized wholesalers with up to 100 employees as well, exporters of machinery, equipment, and chemicals prevail, while those for apparel, agriculture and food remain in the minority (JSBRI, 2012, pp. 71-72). But the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO, 2012b) observes a rising number of companies in the food and non-manufacturing sectors such as retail, wholesale and services.In the fields of agricultural, forestry and marine products and foodstuff, Ã¢â¬Å"many SMEs, even in the face of e conomic headwinds such as appreciation of the yen, are continuing to make efforts to exploit overseas markets. Ã¢â¬ Small companies involved in overseas business, however, still are the exception in Japan, even in the relatively productive manufacturing sector. The proportion of companies with export activities decreases by size. According to the Ã¢â¬Å"White Paper on International Economy and Trade 2011Ã¢â¬ , one out of four manufacturing companies with 401 to 500 employees is involved in exports.For companies with 101 to 200 employees the proportion falls further to one out of eight. And when it comes to companies with 41 to 50 employees, only one out every 20 has export activities (METI, 2011, p. 12). The low number overall, and particularly among smaller companies, is striking when we think of Japan as one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s major trading nations. From the figures above, we can conclude that a major part of the Japanese economy is not taking part in the international div ision of labor and leaving business opportunities untapped.The conspicuously low number hints at underlying obstacles and challenges hindering overseas market expansion. We will look at these in the next section. 2. 2 Challenges of starting overseas activities As shown above, the proportion of Japanese SMEs developing operations overseas is still rather limited and activity tends to be greater in larger companies and in certain industries. In order to succeed in overseas markets, SMEs face certain barriers and have to overcome many challenges.The Survey on the Enhancement of SMEsÃ¢â¬â¢ Competitiveness through Overseas Business Expansion commissioned by the SME Agency in November 2011, looked at requirements that have to be met for companies to go abroad. More than 50% of all companies with export activities regarded having customers and a reliable partner as vital requirements for starting to export, underlining the importance placed on securing customers first (JSBRI, 2012, p. 82 ). Comparatively high proportions of enterprises also cited knowledge of local legal systems, business practices and trends in export markets as well as in-house expertise in exports, suggesting the 6 mportance of building knowledge of export markets and export procedures. One third of the respondents considered financial issues such as financial reserves or the prospect of turning a profit as important, but they did regard them as determining factors. In the case of FDI, however, financial reserves were considered as crucial by three quarters of all companies with overseas sales or production bases. 60% cited the knowledge of the host marketÃ¢â¬â¢s legal system and business practices as important requirement suggesting the need for research and consultation prior to investing overseas.Having customers and reliable partners were also cited by more than half of all respondents. Questioned about challenges and risks, almost 50% of all companies considered the identification and coll ection of information on local market needs as particularly difficult. Marketing in the local market, securing business partners and terms of the local market were also cited to be important issues by more than one third of all respondents, while financing or credit issues only worried 22%. The lack of adequate human resources with international experience is another, if not the most important factor hindering overseas activities.In a 2010 SMEA survey, the Ã¢â¬Å"failure to secure human resources at homeÃ¢â¬ was cited by 37% of all manufacturers as the main reason for giving up plans to invest overseas. It was regarded as more important than finding the right business partner, information collection or financing (METI, 2012, p. 280). JETRO (2012b, p. 15) notes that Ã¢â¬Å"large Japanese corporations are able to secure and foster global human resources through regular fulltime employment of foreign workers, sending young workers still new to their respective fields abroad and cond ucting overseas executive training programs.SMEs, however, find it much harder to take such measures and are hesitant to launch business operations overseas without such personnel. Ã¢â¬ This statement hints at a deep-rooted dualism in JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s labor market. While in Germany small and medium-sized enterprises are regarded as popular employers as they provide 83% of vocational training opportunities and stable, long-term career opportunities (BMWI, 2012, p. 4), Japanese jobseekers have tended to favor the security of employment at large corporations over low-paid jobs at SMEs.Traditionally, new university graduates, especially from top-ranked academic institutions, have a strong preference for jobs in well-known corporations or in government entities. The 2013 ranking of the most popular employers conducted by Rakuten (2012) among more than 6,000 students is topped by JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s largest advertising agency Dentsu, general trading company Itochu and the operator of Ã¢â¬Å"T okyo Disney ResortÃ¢â¬ Oriental Land followed by cosmetics brand Shiseido, TokyoMitsubishi UFJ Bank and All Nippon Airways. Among the 100 top-rated companies, none falls into the category of small and medium-sized enterprises. Attracting experienced and skilled workers remains difficult for SMEs, but, as the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU, 2010, p. 4) notes, Ã¢â¬Å"tough economic times present an opportunityÃ¢â¬ . According to its 2010 report, Ã¢â¬Å"the cloud of the recent recession has brought two silver linings for SMEs: new entrants to the workforce are showing more interest in working for small companies, and larger businesses that are reluctant to fire workers can transfer the knowledge of experienced staff through employee loan programs. On a similar note, JETRO (2012b, p. 15) observes that Ã¢â¬Å"there are some SMEs making efforts to expand abroad by independently securing the necessary human resources such as by utilizing foreign students in Japan, former-trainees wh o completed special training courses for foreigners in Japan, Japanese with volunteer work experience overseas, or retirees. Ã¢â¬ Despite the recent growth in overseas activities, many challenges remain.In the following section, we will look at how these are being addressed by government initiatives. 3. . 3. 1 Initiatives for the promotion of overseas business Public support system for globalizing SMEs In Japan, many public and private institutions provide support functions for SMEs going abroad on a local and international level. On a global scale, JETRO, a government agency under the METI with 73 offices in 55 countries, plays an important role in promoting mutual trade and investment between Japan and the world.Originally established in 1958 to promote Japanese exports abroad, according to its website, Ã¢â¬Å"JETRO's core focus in the 21st century has shifted toward promoting foreign direct investment into Japan and helping small to medium size Japanese firms maximize their gl obal export potentialÃ¢â¬ . On the local level, the Organization for Small & Medium Enterprises and Regional Innovation (SMRJ), established by METI in 2004, supports SMEs through nine regional offices across Japan, with the objective of Ã¢â¬Å"SME development and regional promotion. Although its main activities focus on regional development, it has stepped up its support measures for overseas business development by organizing seminars, establishing a support hotline and publishing a Ã¢â¬Å"Handbook for Supporting Overseas Business DevelopmentÃ¢â¬ . To facilitate assistance to SMEs expanding into overseas markets in a more systematic manner, METI has established the Ã¢â¬Å"Conference on Supporting SMEs in Overseas BusinessÃ¢â¬ in October 2010 by bringing together government officials and support institutions, such as JETRO, SME associations and 8 inancial institutions. Reflecting the results of interviews with approximately 5,000 SMEs, five key issues for supporting SMEs in o verseas business were identified: (1) Information ? Providing necessary information reflecting the needs of SMEs in detail ? Offering consistent support to SMEs by sharing support records by the conference members (2) Marketing ? Supporting product development, and participation in overseas trade fairs ? Supporting the effective use of the internet for overseas business (3) Human resources development and securing talent ?Helping to develop human resources for overseas expansion through seminars, training ? Helping to secure competent human resources for overseas expansion through matching (4) Financing ? Enhancing the financial consulting structure ? Facilitating financing for SMEs when doing overseas business (5) Improvement of the trade and investment environment ? Providing information on the establishment of overseas operations ? Assistance regarding tax, labor and intellectual property matters The conference also established concrete action plans for support measures on a glob al and local level.Actions include information gathering and dissemination through the sharing of best practices, overseas business missions, the invitation of international buyers to trade fairs in Japan, virtual marketplaces, advice on legal, technical and financial issues, and exchange programs for international trainees. The conference also planned to hold 2,500 overseas business and investment seminars by the end of fiscal year 2013 or some 700 a year throughout Japan, in cooperation with JETRO and SMRJ and other institutions.Despite the various services on offer, many companies do not make use of them due to bureaucratic procedures or are simply not aware of them. According to research commissioned by SMEA, only 39% of Japanese SMEs that are going overseas have used any globalisation assistance, including government and private-sector support (EIU, 2010, p. 16) For SMEs asking for assistance in their overseas expansion, JETRO is by far the most used contact point. 4% said they used JETRO services as compared to 13% for the chambers of commerce, 11% for banks and 10% for private consulting firms (METI, 2012, p. 280). JETRO provides information on foreign markets through its website and various publications, consulting services and seminars for 9 companies interested in overseas business. Below, we will focus on three fields in particular and try to assess their results. 3. 2 Export promotion through trade fair participation Finding the right business partner and collecting information of overseas markets are two of the challenges cited by many SMEs.Generally, trade fairs have been recognized as highly effective instruments in international market expansion. In recent years, JETRO has stepped up its efforts to promote Japanese companies abroad through trade fairs and trade missions. SMEs, especially firsttime exhibitors who qualify, can participate in these events at favorable conditions. These activities are similar to initiatives by other countries such as the Institute of the German Trade Fair Industry, which supports German companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ international expansion at 274 exhibitions worldwide.For Japan, no information about the annual number of joint trade fair participations could be obtained, but Ã¢â¬Å"Japan PavilionsÃ¢â¬ at international trade fairs worldwide bring together more and more Japanese exhibitors, among which many SMEs, under a joint Ã¢â¬Å"JapanÃ¢â¬ brand. Examples include Ã¢â¬Å"Medica & CompamedÃ¢â¬ in Dusseldorf, Ã¢â¬Å"Maison et ObjetÃ¢â¬ in Paris and Ã¢â¬Å"Bio International ConventionÃ¢â¬ in Chicago. In order to tap into the demand of emerging nations, JETRO organizes joint pavilions at trade fairs in the BRICS nations, Southeast Asia and the Middle East, such as Ã¢â¬Å"Arab HealthÃ¢â¬ in Dubai and Ã¢â¬Å"Asia Fruit LogisticaÃ¢â¬ in Hong Kong.In November 2012, Japan even had a presence at the Baghdad International Trade Fair with 17 private companies and three governmental institutions. In comparison with other support measures such as seminars or business matching, exhibitors at trade fairs often report concrete results, as trade fairs offer the opportunity to gather the latest market trends, generate sales leads, and to find potential business partners. According to a 2010 survey, 40% of Japanese participants in JETRO-supported trade fairs reported direct results, another 30% said they felt indirect results (METI, 2012, p. 80). Surveys on the effects of Ã¢â¬Å"Japan PavilionsÃ¢â¬ are not yet available, but it can be assumed that relatively unknown SMEs, which are still newcomers to overseas markets, benefit from a joint presence under the Ã¢â¬Å"JapanÃ¢â¬ brand instead of exhibiting on their own. However, as countries such as Germany, France, the UK, the USA, China, Taiwan and others are aggressively promoting their own national brands, Japan needs to continue its marketing efforts in order to keep up the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s recognition. The advanced technolog ical expertise cultivated by Japanese SMEs has often been well-recognized.New labels such as Ã¢â¬Å"Japan StyleÃ¢â¬ for design products or Ã¢â¬Å"Cool JapanÃ¢â¬ for exporting its creative culture such as anime and manga will help to open up new sales channels for consumer goods as well. 10 3. 3 Foreign direct investment and financial support When companies set out to explore overseas business development, they find in many cases inadequate information regarding investment climates in foreign countries, and what funding is available to their ventures. Surveys cited above suggest that financial reserves are regarded as the number one requirement for overseas investment.In its Ã¢â¬Å"New Growth StrategyÃ¢â¬ , the government acknowledges that supporting underfunded SMEs which have proven resources and technologies through a new supporting system is a pressing issue. It refers to the SME financing act expiring in March 2013 and which, if not extended, threatens many ailing SMEs. The government also encourages a change of practice from a collateral and guaranteebased lending to business-based lending in order to diversify fund raising programs for SMEs. For companies with overseas investment plans, however, advisory and funding are readily available.Research into the financial institutions servicing SMEs, shows that JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s support infrastructure for overseas ventures is well developed. For instance, SMEs can apply for low-interest financing under the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s fiscal and loan program through three government financial institutions: the National Life Finance Corporation, Japan Finance Corporation for Small Business, and the Shoko Chukin Bank. Furthermore, the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) supports overseas business development not only for large corporations but for SMEs as well.According to a recent report by Nikkei (Nikkei Net Interactive, January 7, 2012), the government has decided to inject 70 billion yen into a new fu nd managed by JBIC that will support overseas investment and M by large Japanese companies and SMEs. JBICÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Advisory and Consulting OfficeÃ¢â¬ for SMEs (ACOSME) supports overseas business expansion of Japanese SMEs by providing the latest information on local conditions and the investment climate in individual countries. The ACOSME also offers consulting services for obtaining long-term financing.Its website (www. jbic. go. jp) introduces the case study of auto parts manufacturer Aikitec from Nagoya, which successfully built production facilities in Indonesia and China by using JBICÃ¢â¬â¢s financial support. ACOSME also publishes investment guides for major ASEAN countries, and reports on the investment climate in China and Central and East European countries. In addition to responding to SME inquiries individually, ACOSME also sends speakers to meetings held in many Japanese cities for disseminating information on the foreign investment climate. 1 Looking at the companies which have successfully invested abroad, one might be surprised that 5,630 or 70% of the 7,977 enterprises in total with overseas subsidiaries in 2009 were SMEs (JSBRI, 2012, pp. 75-76). More and more automotive or electronics suppliers have set up manufacturing facilities in China, India and Southeast Asian countries. These successful cases, although still limited in relation to the huge potential, show that funding issues can be overcome.When it comes to financing, a 2009 Survey on SMEsÃ¢â¬â¢ International Business Expansion by the Shoko Chukin Bank and Shoko Research Institute shows that the parent company plays a crucial role in the relation with its overseas bases. Ã¢â¬Å"In order to make FDI more effective, close collaboration between a parent company and its overseas subsidiaries is crucialÃ¢â¬ , notes the Japan Small Business Research Institute (JSBRI, 2012, p. 96) in its SME White Paper. In the non-manufacturing sector, financing is regarded as the most import ant issue.Besides financing, common forms of support provided by parent companies in Japan to overseas subsidiaries include assistance with the launch of new products or services and technical supervision by permanent or visiting staff. 3. 4 Human resources development for global activities With the growing importance of overseas markets, SMEs expanding into other countries have to adapt to various local environments. As we have seen above, these SMEs, however, often lack the necessary global human resources.JETRO has identified three core competencies required of global human resources, in addition to foreign language abilities: 1) the ability to take decisive action, 2) the ability to effectively convey oneself, and 3) the ability to succeed in a multicultural environment (JETRO, 2012b, p. 15). Public and private institutions have set up several programs to facilitate the Ã¢â¬Å"securing and fostering global human resourcesÃ¢â¬ . The Ã¢â¬Å"METI Global Internship ProgramÃ¢â¬ implemented by the Overseas Human Resources and Industry Development Association (HIDA) is targeting young business people.It screens and selects 50 to 100 applicants per year for three to six months long internships in government agencies or Japanese subsidiaries in developing countries. According to a METI press release, the programÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose is Ã¢â¬Å"to develop global human resources which will play an active part in dramatically-expanding markets in rising countries, acquiring infrastructure business, promoting small- and medium-sized enterprises' global expansion and other actionsÃ¢â¬ .Other initiatives such as the Ã¢â¬Å"Career Development Program for Foreign Students in JapanÃ¢â¬ tapped into the potential of Ã¢â¬Å"excellent students from AsiaÃ¢â¬ at Japanese universities. Divided into nine 12 regional chapters, the program, which ran from 2009 to 2012, placed foreign trainees in companies throughout Japan in order to support local businesses. In the Osaka (Ki nki) area, its goal was to attract Ã¢â¬Å"human resources who can bridge Kinki with Asia in business and who can play a central role in the company's expansion of its business overseas, in the advancement of economic globalizationÃ¢â¬ .Although large corporations such as Panasonic, Daikin, Omron or Murata were among the participating companies, the program aimed at Ã¢â¬Å"human resources who can play a key role in the enhancement of technologies and management innovations in medium and small-sized enterprises accounting for large part of companies in Kinki, particularly in manufacturing companiesÃ¢â¬ . According to its Japanese website (www. ajinzai-sc. jp), several trainees decided to join local SMEs in the Kinki area. It brought about some change in the participating companies as well.Companies, which used to be hesitant to take in foreign students at the beginning, started to open up and take in trainees year after year. Although the program brought about some tangible result s, it was discontinued after four years at the end of 2012. Programs like these facilitate personal exchange and daily interaction between Japanese staff and foreign employees, but in many companies, especially SMEs, it is still very limited. In order to prepare for their ambitious globalization goals, some companies have taken drastic steps: Two f JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s fastest growing corporations, apparel brand Uniqlo and online shopping company Rakuten, have changed their official language to English. Others have started recruiting foreign students, train them and send them overseas. Foreign employees in SMEs, however, remain an exception and in many small companies English skills are still limited. For years, Japanese companies have focused their efforts on manufacturing excellent products and developing innovative technologies. Their international marketing efforts, however, have not followed the same world-class standards due to a lack of ideas and experience.For SMEs to develop busi ness closely involved with global markets, JETRO (2012b, p. 15) concludes, Ã¢â¬Å"they should focus their energy on Ã¢â¬Ëhito-zukuri (building people)Ã¢â¬â¢ in addition to Ã¢â¬Ëmono-zukuri (manufacturing products)Ã¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬ 4. . Conclusion In the course of the past decade, JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s small and medium enterprises have made significant progress in their international activities. More and more SMEs tap into business opportunities in overseas markets, especially in fast growing regions such as China and other emerging markets. In international comparison, however, JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s SMEs still remain laggards in terms of export orientation 13 nd foreign direct investment. As companies from Germany or other countries are expanding at an even higher pace, JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s SMEs risk to fall behind. SMEs that plan to expand overseas report many challenges and uncertainties, which the public support system tries to address. Barriers to entry have been lowered as assistance becomes readily available. Currently the Japanese government offers assistance to SMEs via several channels, including JETRO, SMRJ and the Japan Chambers of Commerce as well as through funding assistance for some overseas operations, for instance via loans by the Japan Bank for International Cooperation.Yet, as the Economist Intelligence Unit has pointed out, Ã¢â¬Å"lack of awareness and complicated application procedures hinder the take-up of such programs. Ã¢â¬ (EIU, 2010, p. 16). Despite all efforts, the number of SMEs involved in overseas activities remains strikingly low. This globalization gap cannot be explained by barriers to overseas expansion alone, as larger Japanese corporations or companies from other countries face similar challenges. They rather hint at much more fundamental issues, such as a lack of management resources and personnel with language skills and international experience.Internship programs, seminars and other initiatives address the issue of fostering Ã¢â¬Å "global human resourcesÃ¢â¬ . But with a few dozen or even several hundred participants a year these initiatives are nothing more than a drop in the ocean. Most SMEs still lack a global mindset. In order to prepare hundreds or thousands of SMEs for their globalization efforts, a nation-wide effort in English education and intercultural training would be needed. Government programs cannot address all the problems small companies have in recruiting welleducated personnel.It is up to the SMEs to be creative and improve their image in order to attract better local and international talent. By focusing on their core strengths of quality, technology, and innovation, JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s SMEs need to create a brand reputation that will make them employers of choice for highly skilled workers and lift their image overseas. GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"MittelstandÃ¢â¬ can serve them as a benchmark. The dualism in JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, which Michael Porter observed more than twenty years ago, has not been overcome.It seems to have become even more entrenched as large manufacturers relocate their production overseas and many SMEs are left behind. If Japan wants to keep its competitive edge, it has to help more small and medium-sized companies jump on the bandwagon of globalization. Should it fail, its economy risks to stray even further off course. 14 References Abbreviations: BMWI Bundesministerium fur Wirtschaft und Technologie / Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology EIU Economist Intelligence Unit JETRO Japan External Trade Organization JSBRI METI Japan Small Business Research Institute Ministry of Economy, Trade and IndustrySMEA Small Medium Enterprise Agency Bibliographical Sources: BMWI (2012), German Mittelstand: Engine of the German Economy: Facts and figures about small and medium-sized German firms, (www. bmwi. de). EIU (2010), SMEs in Japan: A new growth driver? , (www. managementthinking. eiu. com). JETRO (2012a), FY2011 Survey on the International Operati ons of Japanese Firms: JETRO Overseas Business Survey (www. jetro. go. jp). JETRO (2012b), Global Trade and Investment Report 2012: Companies and People Move Forward Toward Globalization Ã¢â¬â Overview (www. jetro. go. jp).JSBRI (2012), 2012 White Paper on Small and Medium Enterprises in Japan: Small and Medium Enterprises Moving Forward through Adversity (http://www. chusho. meti. go. jp/). Katz, Richard (1996), Japan: The System that Soured: The Rise and Fall of the Japanese Economic Miracle, M. E. Sharpe 1996. METI (2011), White Paper on International Economy and Trade 2011 Summary. Overcoming the earthquake disaster, and restoring and strengthening global economic networks (www. meti. go. jp). METI (2012), White Paper on International Economy and Trade 2012: Extending the Frontiers of Growth through global linkages (www. eti. go. jp). 15 Rakuten (2012), 2013-nendo-sotsu: Shinsotsu shukatsu ninki kigyo rankingu (Ranking of most popular companies for new graduates 2013), (http: //www. nikki. ne. jp/event/20120210/). Simon, Hermann (2012), Hidden Champions: Aufbruch nach Globalia: Die Erfolgsstrategien unbekannter Weltmarktfuhrer, Campus. SMEA (2012), Key Points of the 2012 White Paper on Small and Medium Enterprises in Japan (www. chusho. meti. go. jp/). 16 Figure 1: Export-orientation of Japanese SMEs 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 Number of export-orientedSMEs Percentage among overall SMEs 4 3,5 3 2 1,5 1 0,5 Source: SMEA (2012), Key Points of the 2012 White Paper on Small and Medium Enterprises in Japan, p. 2 Figure 2: Number of workers in Japan at SMEs starting FDI in fiscal year 2002 (= Index 100) 114 112 110 108 106 104 102 100 98 96 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 Enterprises that started FDI in fiscal 2002 and continued through fiscal 2009 (n=53) Enterprises that did not engage in FDI at all between fiscal 1995 and 2009 (n=5103) Source: JSBRI (2012), White Paper on Small and Medium Enterprises in Japan, p. 95 17 in % 2,5
Friday, November 8, 2019
An Introduction to Shakespeare Prose What is Shakespeare prose? How does it differ to verse? The difference between them is central to understanding Shakespeares writing - but it is not as difficult as you might think. Shakespeare moved between prose andÃ verseÃ in his writing to give his characters more depth and vary the overall rhythmic structure of his plays. His treatment of prose is as skillful as his verse. What Is Shakespeare Prose? Prose has: Run-on lines (unlike iambic pentameter)No rhyme or metric schemeThe qualities of everyday language You can easily spot dialogue written in prose because it appears as a block of text, unlike the strict rhythmic patterns of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s verse. Why Did Shakespeare Use Prose? Shakespeare used prose to tell us something about his characters by interrupting the rhythmic patterns of the play. Many of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s low-class characters speak in prose to distinguish them from the higher-class, verse-speaking characters. However, this should be treated as a general Ã¢â¬Å"rule of thumbÃ¢â¬ . For example, one of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s most poignant speeches is delivered entirely in prose, even though he is a Prince: I have of late Ã¢â¬â but wherefore I know not Ã¢â¬â lost all my mirth, forgone all custom of exercise; and indeed it goes so heavily with my disposition that this goodly frame, the earth, seems to me a sterile promontory. This most excellent canopy the air, look you, this brave oÃ¢â¬â¢erhanging, this majestical roof fretted with golden fire Ã¢â¬â why, it appears no other thing to me than a foul and pestilent congregation of vapours.Hamlet, Act 2, Scene 2 In this passage, Shakespeare interrupts HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s verse with a heartfelt realization about the brevity of human existence. The immediateness of the prose presents Hamlet as genuinely thoughtful Ã¢â¬â we are in no doubt that, after dropping the verse, HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s words are solemn. Shakespeare Uses Prose to Create a Range of Effects To make dialogue more realisticMany short, functional lines like Ã¢â¬Å"And I, my lord,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"I pray you leave meÃ¢â¬ are written in prose to give the play a sense of realism. In some longer speeches, Shakespeare allowed the audience to identify more closely with his characters by using the everyday language of the time.To create comic effectSome of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s low-class comic creations aspire to speak in the formal language of their superiors, but do not have the intelligence to achieve this and therefore become objects of ridicule. For example, the uneducated Dogberry in Much Ado About Nothing attempts to use more formal language but keeps getting it wrong. In Act 3, Scene 5, he informs Leonato that Ã¢â¬Å"Our watch, sir, have indeed comprehended two auspicious persons.Ã¢â¬ He means Ã¢â¬Å"apprehendedÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"suspiciousÃ¢â¬ .To suggest a characterÃ¢â¬â¢s mental instabilityIn King Lear, LearÃ¢â¬â¢s verse deteriorates into prose as the play unfolds to suggest his increasingly erratic mental condition. We can also see a similar technique at work in the above passage from Hamlet. Why Is ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Use of Prose Important? In ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s day, it was conventional to write in verse, which was seen as a sign of literary excellence. By writing some of his most serious and poignant speeches in prose, Shakespeare was fighting against this convention. It is interesting that some plays like Much Ado About Nothing are written almost entirely in prose Ã¢â¬â an exceptionally brave move for an Elizabethan playwright.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Reaction Essay Malaria Essays - RTT, Malaria, Tropical Diseases Reaction Essay Malaria Reaction Essay Malaria Watch Out For the Buggys Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans of the Plasmodium type. Recently I had an opportunity to listen to a wonderful, informational presentation by a Cedar Crest Graduate from the genetic engraining program (1993). During her presentation I learned about the infectious disease Malaria that has a horrible effect on millions of people worldwide. Through out this paper I would like to highlight what I learned and state my views on the overlaying issues on Malaria. Before putting my own opinion into the problems of Malaria, I would just like to state the basic information and life cycle of Malaria. Malaria in humans is caused by a protozoon of the genus Plasmodium and the four subspecies, falciparum, vive, malaria, and ovule. The species that cause the greatest illness and death in Africa is P. falciparum. Its commonly known for being transmitted by the bites of mosquitoes. Fever is the main symptom of malaria. This mostly found in women and children causing over two million people sick and over 600,000 children dead. Commonly youll find people who are repeatedly exposed to the disease that acquire a considerable degree of clinical immunity, which is pretty unstable and disappears after a year away from the endemic-disease environment. There are a number of factors that contribute to the rise of malaria, including the rapid spread of resistance of malaria parasites to chloroquine and the other quinolones. The frequent armed conflicts causing ma ny of our own soldiers to become sick. The very high birth rates leading to a rapid increase in the population less than 5 years of age dying. We do not frequently hear much about Malaria, which is very disappointing, I learned that it's one of the ten top issues studied in the USAID (USAID is the lead U.S. Government agency that works to end extreme global poverty and enable resilient, democratic societies to realize their potential.) I had a great opportunity to meet with a senior tech advisor for Malaria development who taught me some scary facts that we here in the United States do not recognize are a major overlaying problem. Millions of people lose their family members, their jobs, almost everything they have because they cant afford the drugs to help treat malaria. Billions and Billions are poured into their funds and usually when we do find a way to control outbreaks (ex. Bed nets, DDT, and Quinine) eventually the bugs will just build up a resistance and continue to spread Malaria. Personally I believe that we do not spread enough awareness of this issue, millions of people are dying and many children will not live past the ages 5 or 6. Our major problem here is that no one is looking at the facts, the deaths or even better in the programs that are supposed to be helping control the disease. Shouldnt more of us be aware, shouldnt we know about all the money that money that Bill Gates is throwing into the funds. Is there really more bed nets being provided, how could we possibly know if we never hear about it. In conclusion, we might never permanently get rid of the little buggys flying around spreading Malaria, who knows, maybe in a year or two there could be a breakthrough that could dismiss the infectious disease and not have any other dangerous effects on the populations. With a little more help and spread of awareness, we could get further with our research all we need are people to care.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
U.S. History from 1700 to 1877 - Essay Example The book Ã¢â¬ËThe Negro in American RebellionÃ¢â¬â¢ by William Wells Brown, a noted literary figure, highlights the contributions of African-Americans in the military, in previous wars and in various slave uprisings. Recounted in less traditional historical point of view, the book argues that the African-American involvement and contributions to the war efforts were ignored or misrepresented in other traditional historical documentation which chronicled the life of African-American soldiers. The essay also describes that the book has a few weaknesses but on the whole the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments are convincing as they were backed by primary sources, such as newspaper articles and documents published by the government. The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s agenda is mentioned in the essay in details and is apparent from the beginning: To promote the rights of African-Americans, acknowledge the contributions of the African-Americans in the war, support the anti-slavery efforts and bestow voting rights to soldiers of African descent in the Union. In conclusion, author of this essay suggests that BrownÃ¢â¬â¢s book is important in the understanding of the American history and experience as a whole in that it offers a disparate insight of life in the past. It factually depicts the struggles of the African-American soldiers and argues for the acknowledgement of their heroism. The experiences of the African-American soldiers in uprisings, rebellion and war cannot be discounted as they form a collective consciousness of the American life.